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  • History
  • Civilisation
  • Geography
  • General info
  • Before you travel

    - Travelling in Romania,
    - Weather,
    - Passports & Visas

A brief history of Romania

Currently, Romania's borders include much of the territory of ancient Dacia.

Since the second millennium BC, Romania was inhabited by Thracian tribes and from the 6th Century BC by the Getae and Dacians.

Between 70–44 BC, Burebista was the one who founded the powerful Dacian state. After his death, the state fell apart in five regions.

In the years 87–106 AD, Decebal reunites Dacia State (the capital at Sarmisegetusa Regia), but after two wars with the Romans under Emperor Trajan (101–102, 105–106), Dacia was conquered and turned into a Roman province.

In 276, the Roman troops leave Dacia.

In the 4th Century AD, Christianity was adopted and in the next five centuries, Dacia is invaded by nomadic tribes from Asia and Europe.

In the 11th Century the Romanians are the only Latin speakers in Eastern Europe and also, the only ones who adopt the Orthodox faith as the official religion. Over the next five centuries, Romanian regions face numerous battles with Ottomans and Hungarians.

In the 16th–17th Centuries, under the threat of the Turks, who conquered Hungary, the three Romanian provinces managed to maintain their autonomy by paying a tribute to the Turks.

The year 1600 brings a brief union of the three Romanian regions under Wallachian ruler Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul).

In the 18th Century, Transylvania and Bukovina (region of northern Moldavia) are included in the Habsburg Empire. In the next century Romania loses Bessarabia and Transylvania enters under Hungarian domination.

In the 20th Century, Romania participated in the two world wars, seeking to recover their lost territories (Transylvania, Bessarabia and Bukovina).

On December 1, 1918 (National Day of Romania) is proclaimed the union of Transylvania with the Romanian Kingdom. In 1939, the Soviet Union annexed Bessarabia and Bukovina, but in 1944 after the Marshal Antonescu’s arrest, Romania joins the Soviets in the fight against the Germany.

King Michael (Regele Mihai) abdicated due to Soviet pressures on December 30, 1947 and went into exile in the same time when Romania was proclaimed The Popular Republic of Romania.

The Romania's communist regime, led to the alteration of the political, economic, social, moral, science and culture life. Dictatorial regime (Nicolae Ceausescu) is removed after the 1989 uprising.

Romania joined NATO in 2004 and since 2007 has been part of the European Union.



The architecture is represented by medieval castles, churches in Moldova, fortified churches in Transylvania, Maramures and Wallachia churches, palaces of 18th Century and buildings of the 20th Century.

Romanian painting

Romanian painting is proudly represented by Theodor Aman, Corneliu Baba, Nicolae Grigorescu, Stefan Luchian, Theodor Pallady, Nicolae Tonitza, Ion Andreescu and Sabin Balasa.


Romanian literature is represented by major authors such as Mihai Eminescu, Ion Luca Caragiale, Ion Creanga, Ioan Slavici, Liviu Rebreanu, Vasile Alecsandri, Mihail Sadoveanu, Tudor Arghezi, Lucian Blaga, Mircea Eliade and George Bacovia.


George Enescu, Ciprian Porumbescu and Gheorghe Zamfir are the most talented Romanian musicians.


Romanian culture was influenced by two major trends: a European one and an Oriental one. The relationship between them depended on the region. Thus, the western part of the country was more influenced by French, German, Austrian culture and the eastern side was strongly governed by oriental influences.


The gastronomy is diverse, comprising many customs and culinary traditions, specific foods, along with habits from the intersection of gastronomic culture with traditions of other nations, with which the Romanian people came into contact through history.


Located halfway between the Equator and the North Pole, Romania is the 12th largest country in Europe.

Positioning: in the northeastern portion of the Balkan Peninsula.

The Carpathian Mountains

Romanian Carpathians are part of the eastern sector of the alpine mountain system comprising 28% of the total area of Romania.

Romania's Carpathians are divided into three ranges: the Eastern Carpathians, the Southern Carpathians and the Western Carpathians.

The Southern Carpathians offer the highest peaks at Moldoveanu (2,544 m) and Negoiu (2,535 m) and more than 150 glacial lakes.

The Danube Delta

Danube ends its journey of approximately 2,860 km throughout Europe, in south–eastern Romania. Here, the river divides into three main branches (Chilia, Sulina and Sf. Gheorghe) forming the Danube Delta, the only delta in the world declared a biosphere reserve.

Of the 580,000 acres, approximately 80% are covered with water.

Delta is a national brand, a land of wild nature, a reservoir of biodiversity and a very popular tourist attraction.

The Black Sea

Romania has a frontage of about 245 km on the Black Sea, which form the Romanian seaside.

Black Sea is a continental sea with low salinity and water temperature of 27 degrees C (summer). Its wide sandy beaches (facing east and southeast) become a major tourist attraction from May until September.


Most of the Romanian rivers have their sources in Carpathian Mountains.

The most important of these rivers are the Danube River (1,075 km), the Mures River (761 km), the Prut River (742 km), the Olt River (615 km), the Siret River (559 km) and Ialomita River (417 km). In the east, river waters are collected by the Siret and the Prut. In the south, the rivers flow directly into the Danube, and in the west, waters are collected by the Tisa on Hungarian territory.

The Danube is the continent's second longest river after the Volga, being the only river that crosses Europe from West to East.

The Danube is by far Romania's most important river, not only for transportation, but also for the production of hydroelectric power. One of Europe's largest hydroelectric stations is located at the Iron Gates, where the Danube surges through the Carpathian gorges.


In Romania there are approximately 2,300 lakes (plus about 1,150 ponds) which occupies a total area of nearly 2,620 km² (1.1% of Romania).

The largest lakes are scattered near the Black Sea and the Danube Meadow and the lowest (below 0.5 km²) in the mountainous regions.

Lake St. Ana (Sfanta Ana) is the only crater lake in Romania located in the volcanic crater (at an altitude of 946 m) named Ciomatu of the Eastern Carpathians, near Tusnad in the Natural Reserve of Mohos, Harghita County.

Balea Lake (Balea Lac) is a glacier lake situated at 2,034 m of altitude in the Fagaras Mountains, in central Romania, Sibiu County. It’s one of the most important tourist attractions in Romania. Right beside the lake is the famous Transfagarasan road.

Flora and fauna

Romanian fauna is one of the richest and most varied in Europe, containing rare species or even unique on the continent.

Flora consists of 3,700 plant species of which 23 have been declared natural monuments.

The three major vegetation areas in Romania are the alpine zone, the forest zone and the steppe zone.

The most important animals are: bear, deer, wild boar, chamois, wolf, lynx, fox, eagle, hawk, pelican, pygmy cormorant, red–breasted goose.

General information

Official Name: Romania

Capital: Bucharest

Location: in southeastern Europe

Area: 238,391 Km²

Population: 19,042,936

Official language: romanian

Ethnic groups: Romanian 89%, Hungarian 6.5%, Roma 3.2%, other ethnic minorities 1.3% (Ukrainians, Germans)

Religion: 78% Orthodox, 10% Greek Catholic, 5% Roman Catholic, 5% Protestant, 2% others

Currency: LEU (RON)

Calling code: +40

Time Zone Area: EET (UTC+2)

The main airport: Henri Coanda – Bucharest

Emergency call: 112

Climate: temperate continental, four distinct seasons

Public Holidays: January 1 and 2 – New Year, Monday following Orthodox Easter (April or early May), May 1 – Labor Day, May / June – Pentecost, 15 August – Assumption, November 30 – St. Andrew, December 1 – National Day, December 25,26 – Christmas

Government: unitary semi–presidential republic

Romania is a member of the European Union (EU)

Before you travel

Travel Documents

American and Canadian citizens as well as citizens of Australia, New Zealand and most European countries do not need an entry visa to visit Romania (for stays up to 90 days).

Your passport has to be valid for at least six months from the date of entry into Romania.

Citizens of the countries of the European Union can also enter Romania with their valid National Identity Card.

For stays longer than 90 days visitors need to contact a local passport office in Romania or a Consulate of Romania, to obtain a visa.

Citizens of any other country should check the visa regulations that apply to them with the nearest Romanian Consulate.

More entry and visa information as well as a list of Romanian Consulates abroad is available at

A traveler can enter and leave Romania with up to 10,000 Euros in cash or traveler's checks. Amounts over 10,000 Euros have to be declared at Customs.


Romania has a temperate continental climate with four seasons.

Spring – marks the transition from winter to summer, with cool mornings and nights, but warm days.

Summer – lasts from June to September and is the season with the longest and warmest days.

Autumn – begins in late September and is characterized by short and cool days.

Winter – the season with the lowest temperatures, the shortest days and longest nights.

Average temperatures

MonthBucharestThe MountainsThe Black Sea Coast
January-3° C-5° C-1° C
February-1° C-10° C1° C
March4° C-3° C3° C
April11° C5° C13° C
May17° C6° C19° C
June22° C9° C24° C
July24° C13° C26° C
August23° C11° C26° C
September18° C8° C22° C
October13° C5° C17° C
November5° C0° C11° C
December1° C-3° C6° C


National airline company Tarom operates domestic flights to major cities in Romania: Baia Mare, Cluj, Iasi, Oradea, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Targu Mures, Timisoara.

The main international airport of Romania is Bucharest Henri Coanda Airport.

Information on domestic flights schedules and fares:

National railway company CFR Passengers operates domestic voyages in all cities of the country.

The main railway station is Gara de Nord located in Bucharest.

Information on domestic train schedules and fares: